Poland  (Polish: Polska), is a large country in Central Europe. It has a long Baltic Sea coastline and is bordered by Belarus, the Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast), Slovakia, and Ukraine.
The first cities in today's Poland, Kalisz in Wielkopolskie and Elbląg in Pomorskie on the Amber Route to the Baltic Sea, were mentioned by Roman writers in the first century AD, but the first Polish settlement in Biskupin in Wielkopolskie dates even further back to the 7th century BC.
Poland was first united as a country in the first half of the 10th century and baptized in 966 AD in Poznań, with the first capitals in Gniezno and Poznań in Wielkopolskie. In the 11th century the capital was moved to Kraków in Malopolskie. Poland experienced its golden age beginning in the 14th to 16th century, under the reign of the last Piast, Casimir the Great, and the Jagiellonians, whose rule extended from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic Seas. In the 16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the biggest country in Europe and the capital was moved to Warsaw at the end of this century. The country attracted significant numbers of foreign migrants, such as Germans, Jews, Armenians and the Dutch, thanks to the freedom of confession guaranteed by the state and the atmosphere of religious tolerance (rather exceptional in Europe at the time of the Holy Inquisition).
During the 17th and the 18th centuries, the nobility increasingly asserted its independence of the monarchy; combined with several exhausting wars, this greatly weakened the Commonwealth. Responding to the need for reform, Poland was the 1st country in Europe (and the 2nd in the world, after the US) to pass a constitution. The constitution of May 3rd, 1791 was the key reform among many progressive but belated attempts to strengthen the country during the second half of the 18th century.
With the country in political disarray, various sections of Poland were subsequently annexed by its neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria, in three coordinated "partitions" of 1772 and 1793, and 1795. After the last partition and a failed uprising, Poland ceased to exist as a country for 123 years.
However, this long period of foreign domination was met with fierce resistance. In the Napoleonic Wars, a semi-autonomous Duchy of Warsaw was created before being erased from the map again in 1813. The 29 November uprising of 1830-1831 (mainly in Russian Poland), the 1848 Revolution (combat mostly took place in Austrian and Prussian Poland) and the 22 January 1863 were clear indicators that Poland showed very little tolerance of subjugation to any of these three equally autocratic powers.
Poland regained its independence on November 11th, 1918 with the end of the World War I. Soon, in 1920-21, the newly-reborn country got into war with Czechoslovakia and, especially, Soviet Russia over territorial disputes. The attack on Warsaw was defeated on August 10th-15th, 1920 in what is remembered today as the Miracle at the Vistula (Polish: Cud nad Wisłą) effectively ending major warfare by October, even though the agreement was finalised the next March.
World War II
World War II officially began on Poland's borders when a coordinated attack by then allies - Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Only a weeks prior to the start of WWII the Soviet Union and Germany signed a pact of non-aggression, which included the division of independent central and eastern European nations. Germany attacked Poland from the west on September 1, 1939. The Soviet Union attacked Poland from the east on September 17, 1939 effectively creating a fourth partition of Poland and causing the Second Polish Republic, established only several years earlier by General Józef Piłsudski, to cease existence.
Many of WWII's most famous war crimes were committed by both Soviets and Nazis on Polish territory. Polish civilians opposed to either side's rule were rounded up and tortured and/or executed. The Nazis established concentration and death camps, of which Auschwitz is the most famous, that were the places where so many millions of Europeans were murdered under the careful calculation of sociopaths. The Soviets famously murdered roughly 22,000 Poles in the Katyń forest, who were Polish officers, priests, politicians, and landowners. Polish law required every nonexempt university graduate to become a reserve officer in the armed forces, so with the massacre, the Soviets were able to kill off a significant portion of Polish intelligentsia.
Eventually, Nazi Germany would attack the Soviet Union occupied territory and the Soviets suddenly blamed the Katyń massacre on the Nazis and the Soviets began an operation of "liberating" Poland. During the war Poland lost about 20% of its population, and Polish economy was completely ruined. After the war it was forced to become a Soviet satellite country, following the Yalta and Potsdam agreements between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union; to this day these events are viewed by many Poles as an act of betrayal. Poland's territory was significantly reduced and shifted westward: the native Polish population from the former Polish territories in the east, now annexed by the Soviet Union, were expelled by force and replaced the likewise expelled German population in the west and in the north of the country.
Post-World War II
The Communist era (1945-1989) is a point of bitter topic for many Poles. After the brief but sometimes bloody Stalinist era of 1945-1953, Poland was comparatively tolerant and progressive in comparison to other Eastern Bloc countries. But strong economic growth in the post-war period alternated with serious recessions in 1956, 1970, 1976, resulting in labour turmoil over dramatic inflation as well as shortages of goods. Communists in Poland subverted democracy for power and manipulation.
Ask older Poles to tell you about communism and you'll often hear stories of empty store shelves where sometimes the only thing available for purchase was vinegar. You'll hear stories about backroom deals to get meat or bread, such as people trading things at the post office just to get ham for a special dinner.
In 1980, the anti-communist trade union "Solidarity" (Polish: Solidarność)  became a strong political force, although persecuted by the communist government. To protect the government from a Solidarity inspired revolution, General Wojciech Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland on December 13, 1981 which lasted until July 22, 1983. During this time, thousands of people were detained. Phone calls were monitored by the government, independent organizations not aligned with the Communists were deemed illegal and members were arrested, access to roads were restricted, the borders were sealed, and ordinary industries were placed under military management and workers who failed to follow orders faced the threat of a military court. Solidarity, which had been demanding reforms, was the most famous organization to be de-legalized and its members faced losing their jobs and detention.
Eventually, Solidarity was legalized again and led the country to the first free elections in 1989, inspiring a string of peaceful anti-communist revolutions throughout the Warsaw Pact block. A shock therapy program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Nowadays, Poland is a democratic country with a stable economy. Poland has been a member of NATO since 1999 and the European Union since May 2004, when it joined with 9 other countries. In 2007 Poland joined the Schengen group.
The countryside throughout Poland is lovely and relatively unspoiled. Poland has a variety of regions with beautiful landscapes and small-scale organic and traditional farms. Travellers can choose different types of activities such as bird watching, cycling or horseback riding.
Culturally you can sight-see at many churches, museums, ceramic and traditional basket-making workshops, castle ruins, rural centers and many more. A journey through the Polish countryside gives you a perfect opportunity to enjoy and absorb local knowledge about its landscape and people.
- Polish National Tourist Office 
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Poland
Note that Catholic religious holidays are widely observed in Poland. Stores, malls, and restaurants are likely to be closed or have very limited business hours on Easter, All Saints Day, Christmas Eve and Christmas.
- Easter (Wielkanoc, Niedziela Wielkanocna), a moveable feast that happens in March or April. Like Christmas, it is primarily a meaningful Christian holiday. On the Saturday before Easter, churches offer special services in anticipation of the holiday, including blessing of food; children especially like to attend these services, bringing small baskets of painted eggs and candy to be blessed. On Easter Sunday itself, practicing Catholics go to the morning mass, followed by a celebratory breakfast made of foods blessed the day before. On Easter Sunday, shops, malls, and restaurants are commonly closed.
- Lany Poniedziałek, or Śmigus Dyngus, is the Monday after Easter, and also a holiday. It's the day of an old tradition with pagan roots: groups of kids and teens wandering around, looking to soak each other with water. Often groups of boys will try to catch groups of girls, and vice versa; but innocent passers-by are not exempt from the game, and are expected to play along. Common 'weapons' include water guns and water baloons, but children, especially outdoors and in the countryside, like to use buckets and have no mercy on passers-by.
- Constitution Day falls on May 3rd, in rememberance of the Constitution of May 3rd, 1791. The document itself was a highly progressive attempt at political reform, and it was Europe's first constitution (and world's second, after the US). Following the partitions, the original Constitution became a highly poignant symbol of national identity and ideals. Today, May 3rd is a national holiday, often combined with the May 1 (Labor Day) into a larger celebration.
- All Saints Day (Zaduszki, Wszystkich Świętych), 1st of November. In the afternoon and evening, people visit graves of their relatives and light candles. After dusk cemeteries glow with thousands of lights and offer a very picturesque scene. If you have the chance, be sure to visit a cemetery to witness the holiday.
- Christmas Eve (Wigilia), December 24th. One of the most important days of the year, and the most important feast. This is the day when everything closes down as people go home to celebrate Christmas with friends and family. It's also one of the most interesting holidays due to the customs. Typically, Poles will prepare a twelve (representing the twelve apostles) course vegetarian meal and will begin eating after they see the first star in the night sky. Rest assured, even if the sky is cloudy, Poles will find a star. They also leave an extra chair and place set at the table just in case anyone (even a stranger) stops by for dinner. In Poland, Wigilia is more important than Christmas Day, but also a working day - shops are usually open till early afternoon.
- New Year's Eve (Sylwester) December 31st. One of the party nights of the year. Consider yourself extremely lucky if you can get into even a decent club as most clubs will be packed. Most clubs will sell tickets in advance, but you'll probably have to dish out at least 150 PLN, and that's just for entrance and maybe a couple of drinks. If you're a little more flexible, you might be able to get into non-club parties. Otherwise, there are always the firework displays to entertain you.
Poland's administrative regions are called województwa, abbreviated "woj.". The word is roughly equivalent to a duchy or a district.
Some English dictionaries use the word voivodship  to describe them, but the word is exceedingly rare, and likely not to be understood.
There are a lot of big cities in Poland that are worth seeing. Most of them have a flourishing medieval history.
- Warszawa - the biggest city and capital of Poland, and one of the EU's thriving new business centers. The old town, demolished during World War II, has been rebuilt in a style inspired by classicist paintings of Canalletto.
- Kraków - the "cultural capital" of Poland, and its historical capital during its formative years in the Middle Ages. In modern times Krakow became one of the largest tourism centers in Europe. The historical center is filled with old churches and many monuments, the largest European medieval market-place, and plenty of magical pubs and cafes; all attract millions of visiors from around the world each year. Its location is a great starting point for trips of any kind.
- Gniezno - first capital of Poland in the 10th and 11th centuries. Well-preserved monuments from that period, as well as a medieval Old Town and many monuments from later epochs.
- Łódź - once renowned for its textile industries, the "Polish Manchester" has the longest walking street in Europe, the Piotrkowska Street, full of picturesque 19th-century architecture.
- Wrocław - the old Silesian city presents a perfect mixture of Gothic and baroque architecture which is one of the biggest and finest in Europe (the number of churches is even greater than in Kraków); it was also destroyed during World War II and successfully rebuilt. Placed on 12 islands, it has more bridges than any other European town except Venice, Amsterdam and Saint Petersburg.
- Gdańsk - one of the old, beautiful European cities, right on the Baltic coast. Although it was destroyed in World War II, it has been perfectly rebuilt. The city is a good departure point to the many sea resorts along the north coast.
- Szczecin - one of the most important cities in Pomerania since the Middle Ages. An enormous harbour, monuments and old parks in the centre, museums, etc.
Poland is a member of the European Union and has joined the Schengen Agreement, which means that you can enter on a European Union Schengen visa and there are no longer any ID/passport controls on internal EU borders.
Beside the countries outlined above, citizens from the following countries may travel to Poland for tourism and business purposes with a valid passport and without a visa if their planned stay does not exceed 90 days: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, San Marino, Singapore, South Korea, USA, Uruguay, Vatican and Venezuela. Citizens of all other countries must obtain a visa in order to enter and stay in Poland legally. Always check with the local Polish Embassy or on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs  website for updates as this can change.
Regular visas are issued for travellers going to Poland for tourism and business purposes. Regular visas allow for one or multiple entries into Polish territory and stay in Poland for maximum up to 90 days and are issued for the definite period of stay. When applying for a visa, please indicate the number of days you plan to spend in Poland and a date of intended arrival. Holders of regular visas are not authorized to work.
Ukrainian citizens do not require a separate visa for transit through Poland if they hold a Schengen or UK visa.
Most of Europe's major airlines fly to and from Poland. Poland's national carriers are LOT Polish Airlines . Besides there are several low cost airlines that fly to Poland including WizzAir , EasyJet , Germanwings , Norwegian  and Ryanair .
Apart from direct air connections from many European cities, there are also direct flights from United States and Canada. LOT operates direct flights from Toronto, New York and Chicago; however, tickets for those flights are far from cheap and most people with limited budgets fly with other airlines which stopover in major European airports.
International airlines fly mainly to Warsaw's Frederic Chopin Airport  (WAW) in Okęcie. Other major airports in Poland are: Kraków-Balice (KRK) , Katowice-Pyrzowice (KTW) , Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport (GDN) , Poznań-Ławica (POZ) , Wrocław Copernicus Airport (WRO) , Szczecin-Goleniów (SZZ) , Rzeszów-Jasionka (RZE) , Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport (BZG)  and Łódź Władysław Reymont Airport, formerly: "Lublinek" (LCJ) .
Domestic flights operated by LOT (under Eurolot brand) connect Warsaw with Bydgoszcz, Katowice, Kraków, Gdańsk, Poznan, Łódź, Szczecin Wrocław and Zielona Góra. Apart LOT there some domestic flight operated by Jet Air  : between Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Krakow, Zielona Gora, Lodz and Warsaw. As well the carrier operates to Copenhagen, Berlin and Vienna. Other smaller cities don't have airports with facilities that would allow commercial airlines to operate internationally; however, there are often charter flights available - of course, these are for people with thick wallets.
As the number of flights and passengers has significantly increased since 1990, new terminal has been opened at the Warsaw Chopin airport which will significantly increase the airport's capacity. Also airports in Kraków, Poznań, Wrocław and Łódź have been expanded to increase their standards and capacity.
Direct connections  with:
- Berlin, EuroCity "Berlin-Warszawa-Express (BWE)", 3 trains per day, 6 hours + 1 train per day Berlin - Poznan, 3 hours, EuroCity "Wawel" to Krakow, every day, 10 hours
- Hamburg, EuroNight "Jan Kiepura", everyday, 15 hours
- Vilnius, Night Train "Balti", 10 hours - temporarily operated by bus
- Kiev, Night Train, 16 hours
- Vienna, Night Train "Chopin", every day, 9 hours, EuroCity "Sobieski", everyday, 6 hours, EuroCity "Polonia", every day, 8 hours
- Prague, Night Train "Chopin", EuroCity "Praha", every day, 9.5 hours
- Moscow, Night Train "Ost-West", every day, 20.5 hours
You can enter Poland by one of many roads linking Poland with the neighboring countries. Since Poland's entry to the Schengen Zone, checkpoints on border crossings with other EU countries have been removed.
However, the queues on the borders with Poland's non-EU neighbors, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, are still large and in areas congested with truck traffic it can take up to several hours to pass. You can check the current waiting times on Polish Border Guard page  (wjazd - entry, wyjazd - exit, osob. - passenger cars, autob. - coaches, ciężar. - lorries).
There are many international bus lines that connect major Polish cities, with most of major European ones.
- PEKAES  part of Eurolines  (from: A, BY, B, HR, CZ, DK, GB, EST, F, D, GR, NL, I, LV, LT, N, RUS, E, S, CH, UA), +48 22 6269352, +48 22 6522321, online reservation
- Orbis  (from: B, BG, F, GR, E, NL, D, CH, GB), +48 22 6227356, +48 22 5001500, +48 22 5001550
- Polka Service  (from: F), +48 22 8275050
- Gullivers  (from: D), D +49 30 31102110, Intl +80048554837
- Visitor  from London (their buses feature numbered seats)
- PPKS Warszawa  +48 22 7208383 (from: BG, D, LT, S, UA)
- Certain routes are operated under the EuroLines  brand
- From Sweden: Ystad (7-9 hours, 215 zł) by Unity Line ; Karlskrona (10 hours, 140-220 zł) by Stena Line ; Nynäshamn (18 hours, 230-270 zł), Visby (13.5 hours, 170 zł), Ystad (9.5 hours, 230 zł) by Polferries 
Although there are many ports along Polish coast, at least at every river mouth, don't expect high standards there. Bigger marinas are located in Szczecin, Łeba, Hel, Gdynia and Gdańsk but some of them are still lacking basic facilities. Although there are many sailors in Poland, overbloated bureaucracy still inhibits growth of sea sailing tourism.
Polish road infrastructure is well-developed but poorly maintained and lacks badly-needed highways. Public transport is quite plentiful, both buses and trains.
In Poland, the national railway carrier PKP  is divided into independent companies such as PKP InterCity (Intercity, Express, Night Express, TLK), and PKP Przewozy Regionalne (regional rail). Tickets are quite cheap, but travel conditions reflect the fact that majority of railworks and wagons are from a few decades ago.
- Express / IC InterCity / EC EuroCity - express trains between metro areas. Popular routes include: Warsaw-Kraków (290 km, 2 hours 45 minutes), Warsaw-Katowice (298 km, 2 hours 40 minutes), Warsaw-Poznan (306 km, 2 hours 50 minutes). Reservation usually required.
- TLK - express trains, held by same company. Slower, but cheaper than above and better than below types. Not many routes, but very good alternative for budget travellers. Check www.tlk.pl usually compulsory reservation but very cheap.
- Pospieszny - long distance, priority trains, stop only in cities and large towns. You can also buy a weekend turystyczny ticket, or a week-long pass.
- Osobowy - long distance, ordinary train; usually slow, stops everywhere.
- Podmiejski - suburban commuter train.
- Narrow guage - Poland still retains a number of local narrow-gauged railways. Some of them are oriented towards tourism, and operate only in summer or on weekends, while others remain active as everyday municipal rail.
Tickets for any route can be purchased at any station. For a foreigner buying tickets this can prove to be a frustrating experience, since only cashiers at international ticket offices (in major cities) can be expected to speak multiple languages. It is recommended that you buy your train tickets at a travel agency to avoid communication difficulties; long queues in front of the ticket sales offices is another good reason for foreign travellers to choose a travel agency.
It may be easier to buy in advance during peak seasons (eg. end of holiday period, New Year, etc.) for those trains where place reservation is obligatory.
If you change trains between InterCity and Regional you have to buy two tickets. It connects all major cities, but it is also good choice to get to many small towns on internal routes.
- PKP timetable search  (in English, but station names of course in Polish)
- Alternative search service 
- PKP  information: +48 22 9436, international information +48 22 5116003
- PKP Intercity  serves express connections (tickets can be bought online  but you'd need to carry the ticket printout with you on the train)
- Polrail Service  offers a guide to rail travel in Poland and online purchase of tickets and rail passes for Polish and international trains to neighboring countries.
Travellers under 26 years are entitled to 26% discount on travel fare on Intercity's TLK, EX and IC-category trains, excluding the price of seat reservation.
Poland has a very well developed network of private charter bus companies, which tend to be cheaper, faster, and more comfortable than travel by rail. For trips under 100km, charter buses are far more popular than trains. However, they are more difficult to use for foreigners, because they are definitely oriented towards locals.
Each city and town has a central bus station (formerly known as PKS), where the various bus routes pick up passengers; you can find their schedules there. Tickets are usually purchased directly from the driver, but sometimes it's also possible to buy them at the station.
Buses are also a viable choice for long-distance and international travel; however, be aware that long-distance schedules are usually more limited than for trains.
Polish road network contains fewer highways, and more standard two-lane roads, than is common in western European countries; some of these roads are far below capacity for the volume of travel they're experiencing. Roads are generally well-signed but various surface defects, most notably ruts, are commonplace.
Travel between large cities is usually quite comfortable; as long as you keep by the main roads, you should get to where you want fairly easy. When travelling between smaller cities or towns, not on the main highways, you will routinely encounter slow moving vehicles, and will have to overtake them.
Poles drive aggressively: they assert their right-of-way, routinely disrespect speed limits, and overtake at less-than-safe distances. When driving in the countryside, other drivers may expect you to facilitate overtaking, by evading slightly towards the edge of the pavement (whether they're overtaking you, or sometimes when approaching from the opposite direction). This is a custom, not a law, so you are not obliged to follow it. Before you do it, make sure there is a hard shoulder and it is safe to do so.
Some peculiarities of driving in Poland include:
- Speed limits are: 50km/h in city (60 km/h 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.), 90 km/h outside city, 10 km/h more if directions are separated, 100 km/h on car-only roads (white car on the blue sign), 110 km/h more if directions are separated, and 130 km/h on highways.
- Driving under the influence of alcohol is a serious offence. BAC limits are: up to 0.02% - not prosecuted by law, up to 0.05% - an offence, above 0.05% - criminal offence (up to 2 years in jail). Despite the strict laws, DUI's are a serious problem in Poland. Be especially careful during (and after) national holidays and on the small roads in the countryside.
- There is no right turn at a red light. Exception is when there is green arrow signal in which case you still have to come to a complete stop and yield to pedestrians and cross traffic (although the stop rule is seldom respected by Polish drivers). All above does not apply if right turning traffic has separate (red-yellow-green) signals.
- On T-crossing or crossroads without traffic signs, traffic at the right always has right-of-way unless your road is a priority route, shown by a road sign displaying a yellow diamond with a white outline.
- Driving with lights on is obligatory at all times.
Some drivers flash their headlights to warn those approaching from the opposite direction of a police control nearby (you are likely to encounter this custom in many other countries). So if you see somebody flashing their headlights, it doesn't necessarily mean there is something wrong with your car.
In Poland you can encourage three ways of saying "thank you". More common, and what may be misleading for foreigners is using hazard lights (all indicators simultaneously) once or twice. It is beeing slowly phased out by flashing right/left/right indicator sequence or similar. Third way of saying "thank you" mainly used when letting someone do a left turn is by showing right hand.
Be aware about hazard lights - Drivers also use them as a way of showing, that vehicle is rapidly slowing down, or alredy stopped in a traffic jam on a highway.
Use only those that are associated in a "corporation" (look for phone number and a logo on the side and on the top). The unaffiliated drivers are likely to cheat and charge you much more. Be especially wary of these taxis near international airports and train stations (but then, shouldn't one be wary of them everywhere?). They are called the "taxi mafia".
Because of travellers advice like this (and word of mouth), taxis with fake phone numbers can be seen on the streets, although recently this seems to have decreased, possibly the police have taken notice. Fake phone numbers are easily detected by locals and cater for the unsuspecting traveller. The best advice is to ask your Polish friends or your hotel concierge for the number of the taxi company they use and call them 10-15 minutes in advance (there's no additional cost). That's why locals will only hail taxis on the street in an emergency.
You can also find phone numbers for taxis in any city on the Internet, on municipal and newspaper websites. Some taxi companies, particularly in larger towns provide for a cab to be ordered online or with a text message. There are also stands, where you can call for their particular taxi for free, often found at train stations.
If you negotiate the fare with the driver you risk ending up paying more than you should. Better make sure that the driver turns the meter on and sets it to the appropriate fare (taryfa):
- Taryfa 1: Daytime within city limits
- Taryfa 2: Nights, Sundays and holidays within city limits
- Taryfa 3: Daytime outside city limits
- Taryfa 4: Nights, Sundays and holidays outside city limits
The prices would vary slightly between the taxi companies and between different cities, and there is a small fixed starting fee added on top of the mileage fare.
When crossing city limits (for example, when traveling to an airport located outside the city), the driver should change the tariff at the city limit.
Every taxi driver is obliged to issue a receipt when asked (at the end of the ride). You can inquire driver about a receipt (rachunek) before you get into cab, and resign if his reaction seems suspicious or if he refuses.
Bicycling is a good method to get a good impression of the scenery in Poland. The roads can sometimes be in quite a bad state, but mostly they are ok. The cars drivers are not as careless as they are said to be. Especially in the south you can find some nice places for bicycling; e.g. along the rivers Dunajec (from Zakopane to Szczawnica) or Poprad (Krynica to Stary Sacz) or Lower Silesia (Zlotoryja - Swierzawa - Jawor).
Hitchhiking in Poland is (on average) OK. Yes, it's slower than its Western (Germany) and Eastern (Lithuania) neighbors, but your waiting times will be quite acceptable!
Not necessarily a thumb but waving an extended hand is a much better recognized sign that you need a lift in Poland. Use a cardboard sign and write the city name on it.
Do not try to catch a lift where it is forbidden to stop. Look on the verge of the road and there should be a dashed line painted there, not a solid one.
As in any country, you should be careful, there are several reports of Polish hitchhiking trips gone awry, so take basic precautions and you should be as right as rain.
The official language of Poland is Polish.
Foreign visitors should be aware that virtually all official information will usually be in Polish only. Street signs, directions, information signs, etc. are routinely monolingual, as are schedules and announcements at train and bus stations (airports seem to be an exception to this). When it comes to information signs in museums, churches, etc., signs in multiple languages are typically found only in popular tourist destinations.
Most of the young people and teenagers know English well enough. Since English is taught at a very young age (some start as early as 4 years old), only Poles who grow up in isolated towns or communities will not be given English lessons. Older Poles, however, especially those outside the main cities, will speak little or no English at all. However, it's highly possible that they speak either German or Russian which were taught in schools as the main foreign languages until the 1990s. French and Spanish are also very popular.
A few phrases go a long way in Poland. Contrary to some other tourist destinations where natives scoff at how bad a foreigner's use of the native language is, Polish people generally love it when foreigners learn Polish, even if it's only a few phrases. Younger Poles will also jump at the chance to practice their English. Be advised that if you are heard speaking English in a public setting you will be glanced; people will listen in to practice their understanding of English.
Do your homework and try to learn how to pronounce the names of places. Polish has a very regular pronunciation, so this shouldn't be a problem. Although there are a few sounds unknown to most English speakers, mastering every phoneme is not required to achieve intelligibility; it's rather about catching the spirit.
Poland's history has made it a very homogenous society today, in stark contrast to its long history of ethnoreligious diversity; almost 99% of the population today is ethnic Polish; before World War II it was only 69% with large minorities, mainly Ukrainians, Belorussians, and Germans and less than two-thirds Roman Catholic with large Orthodox and Protestant minorities as well as having the largest Jewish community in Europe that composed 10% of Poland's population at the time. Outside of the very touristy areas of the major cities, you'll find that there are few, if any, foreigners. Most of the immigrants in Poland (notably Ukrainians and Vietnamese) stay in the major cities for work.
The legal tender in Poland is the Polish złoty (zł, international abbreviation: PLN). The złoty divides into 100 grosze. Poland is expected to adopt the Euro (€) sometime after 2010, but those plans are still tentative.
Private currency exchange offices (Polish: kantor) are very common, and offer Euro or USD exchanges at rates that are usually comparable to commercial banks. Be aware that exchanges in tourist hot-spots, such as the train stations or popular tourist destinations, tend to overcharge.
There is also an extensive network of cash machines or ATMs (Polish: bankomat). The exchange rate will depend on your particular bank, but usually ends up being pretty favorable, and comparable to reasonably good exchange offices.
Credit cards can be used to pay almost everywhere in the big cities. Popular cards include Visa, Visa Electron, MasterCard and Maestro. AmEx and Diners' Club can be used in a few places (notably the big, business-class hotels) but are not popular and you should not rely on them for any payments.
Cheques were never particularly popular in Poland and they are hardly used nowadays.
It is illegal to export goods older than 55 years that are of ANY historic value. If you intend to do so you need to obtain a permit from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage .
Super and hypermarkets
Hypermarkets are dominated by western chains: Carrefour, Tesco, Auchan, Real. Usually located in shopping malls or suburbs.
However Poles shop very often at local small stores for bread, meat, fresh dairy, vegetables and fruits - goods for which freshness and quality is essential.
Poles take their meals following the standard continental schedule: a light breakfast in the morning (usually some sandwiches with tea/coffee), then a larger lunch (or traditionally a "dinner") at around 1pm or 2pm, then a supper at around 7pm.
It is not difficult to avoid meat, with many restaurants offering at least one vegetarian dish. Most major cities have some exclusively vegetarian restaurants, especially near the city center. Vegan options remain extremely limited, however.
Traditional Local Food
Traditional Polish cuisine tends to be hearty, rich in meats, sauces, and vegetables; sides of pickled vegetables are a favorite accompaniment. Modern Polish cuisine, however, tends towards greater variety, and focuses on healthy choices.
A dinner commonly includes the first course of soup, followed by the main course. Among soups, barszcz czerwony (red beet soup, a.k.a. borsch) is perhaps the most recognizable: a spicy and slightly sour soup, served hot. It's commonly poured over dumplings (barszcz z uszkami or barszcz z pierogami), or served with a fried pate roll (barszcz z pasztetem). Other uncommon soups include zupa ogórkowa, a cucumber soup made of a mix of fresh and pickled cucumbers; zupa grzybowa, typically made with wild mushrooms; also, flaki or flaczki, a kind of spicy tripe.
Pierogi are, of course, an immediately recognizable Polish dish. They are often served along side another dish (for example, with barszcz), rather than as the main course. Gołąbki are also widely known: they are large cabbage rolls stuffed with a mix of grains and meats, steamed and served hot.
Bigos is another unique, if less well-known, Polish dish: a "hunter's stew" that includes various meats and vegetables, on a base of pickled cabbage. Bigos tends to be very thick and hearty. Similar ingredients can also be thinned out and served in the form of a cabbage soup, called kapuśniak. Some Austro-Hungarian imports have also become popular over the years, and adopted by the Polish cuisine. These include gulasz, a local version of goulash that's less spicy than the original, and sznycel po Wiedeńsku, which is a traditional shnitzel, often served with potatoes and a selection of vegetables.
When it comes to food-on-the-go, foreign imports tend to dominate (such as kebab or pizza stands, and fast-food franchises). An interesting Polish twist is a zapiekanka, which is an open-faced baguette, covered with mushroooms and cheese (or other toppings of choice), and toasted until the cheese melts. Zapiekanki can be found at numerous roadside stands and bars.
Poland is also known for two unique cheeses, both made by hand in the [Podhale] mountain region in the south. Oscypek is the more famous: a hard, salty cheese, made of unpasteurized sheep milk, and smoked. It goes very well with alcoholic beverages such as beer. The less common is Bryndza, a soft cheese, also made with sheep milk (and therefore salty), with a consistency similar to spreadable cheeses. It's usually served on bread, or baked potatoes. Both cheeses are covered by the EU Protected Designation of Origin (like the French Roquefort, or the Italian Parmegiano-Reggiano).
If you want to eat cheaply, you should visit a milk bar (bar mleczny). A milk bar is very basic sort of fast food restaurant that serves cheap Polish fare. Nowadays it has become harder and harder to find one. It was invented by the communist authorities of Poland in mid-1960s as a means to offer cheap meals to people working in companies that had no official canteen. Its name originates from the fact that until late 1980s the meals served there were mostly dairy-made and vegetarian (especially during the martial law period of the beginning of the 1980s, when meat was rationed). The milk bars are usually subsidized by the state. Eating there is a unique experience - it is not uncommon that you will encounter people from various social classes - students, businessmen, university professors, elderly people, sometimes even homeless, all eating side-by-side in a 1970s-like environment. Presumably, it is the quality of food at absolutely unbeatable price (veggie main courses starting from just a few złotych!) that attracts people. However, a cautionary warning needs to be issued - complete nut jobs do dine at milk bars too, so even if you're going to for the food, you'll end up with dinner and a show. Curious as to what the show will entail? Well, each show varies, but most of them will leave you scratching head and require the suspension of reality.
Poland is on the border of European "vodka" and "beer culture". Poles enjoy alcoholic drinks at least as much as other Europeans. You can buy beer, vodka and wine. Although Poland is known as the birthplace of vodka, local beer seems to have much more appeal to many Poles. Another traditional alcoholic beverage is mead. Polish liqueurs and nalewka (alcoholic tincture) are a must.
Officially, in order to buy alcohol one should be over 18 years old and be able to prove it with a valid ID (which is strictly enforced).
Poland's brewery tradition began in the Middle Ages. Today Poland is one of top beer countries in Europe.
Although not well known internationally, Poland traditionally sports some of the best pilsner-type lagers worldwide. The most common brands include:
- Lech (pronounced LEH)
- Żywiec (pronounced ZHIV-y-ets)
- Tyskie (pronounced TIS-kee)
- Okocim (pronounced oh-KO-cheem)
- Warka (pronounced VAR-kah)
- Łomża (pronounced Uom-zha)
- Żubrówka (Zhe-BROOF-ka) - vodka with flavors derived from Bison Grass, from eastern Poland.
- Żołądkowa Gorzka (Zho-want-KO-va GORZH-ka) - vodka with "bitter" (gorzka) in the name, but sweet in the taste. Just like Żubrówka, it's an unique Polish product and definitely a must-try.
- Żytnia (ZHIT-nea) - rye vodka
- Wyborowa (Vi-bo-RO-va) - One of Poland's most popular potato vodkas. This is also one of the most common exported brands. Strong and pleasant.
- Biała Dama (Be-AH-wa DAH-ma)
- Luksusowa (Look-sus-OH-vah) "Luxurious" - Another popular brand, and a common export along with Wyborowa.
Deluxe (more expensive) brands include Chopin and Belvedere. Expect to pay about 100 złoty a bottle (2007 prices). Most Poles consider these brands to be "export brands", and usually don't drink them.
- Starka "Strong" - A vodka traditionally aged for years in oak casks.
Poland does make a few quality wines around Zielona Góra in Dolnośląskie, Małopolskie and Podkarpackie in the Beskids with the most famous Polish wineyard in of the Dionisos of Jasło ( website only in Polish) and Świętokrzyskie in central Poland. They used to be only available from the manufacturer or at wine festivals, like in Zielona Góra. But with a new law passed in 2008 this has changed, and Polish wines will also be available in retail starting in 2009.
As for imported wine, apart from the usual old and new world standards, there is usually a choice of decent table wines from central and eastern Europe, such as Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, the Balkans, and Georgia.
It the winter time, many Poles drink grzaniec (mulled wine), made of red wine heated with spices such as cloves, nutmeg, and ginger. A similar drink can be made with beer, although wine is the most popular method.
Mead - Miód Pitny is a traditional and historical alcohol drink in Poland. Mead is brewed from honey and has excellent unusual taste similar to wine. Original Polish mead contain 13-20% alcohol. Sometimes it can be very sweet.
Poles are very keen on beer and vodka, and you'll find that cocktails are often expensive but can be found in most bars in most major cities.
Tea and coffee
Throw stereotypes out the door. For Poles, one of the most important staples to quench their thirst is not wódka or beer, but rather tea and coffee.
When ordering a coffee, you'll find that it is treated with respect reminiscent of Vienna, rather than, say, New York. Which is to say: you'll get a fresh cup prepared one serving at a time, with table service that assumes you'll sit down for a while to enjoy it. Mass-produced to-go coffee remains highly unpopular, although chains such as Coffee Heaven have been making inroads.
Ordering a tea, on the other hand, will usually get you a cup or kettle of hot water, and a tea bag on the side, so that the customer can put together a tea that's as strong or as weak as they like. This is not uncommon in continental Europe, but may require some adjustment for visitors.
For the most part, a good coffee can be had for 5 - 10 zł a cup, while a cup of tea can be purchase for the same, unless you happen to order a small kettle, in which case you'll probably pay something between 20 - 30 zł.
Most Polish people will tell you not to drink the tap water in Poland, regardless of where you are. Almost all Poles drink bottled spring water or boil water to purify it. In some places (Warsaw) you can find "studnia oligoceńska" - a public deep-drilled well that serves water from Oligocene period - water from those should be safe to drink (boil it if unsure).
Foreigners should note that drinking water with a meal is not a Polish tradition; you will almost always have to ask for water with your meal. Some Westerners will be surprised to discover that most Poles drink carbonated water, although non-carbonated bottled water is generally widely available. The phrase "woda niegazowana" ("non-carbonated water") works well. Poland is known for its mineral waters. You can buy it in every shop, or try real mineral water with salts in "pavilions of water" (Pijalnia wód) in mountain resorts, where this water is produced. For example, Szczawnica or Krynica.
Lodging prices are no longer the bargain they used to be several years ago; now they're comparable to standard European prices. For the bargain hunter, standard tactics apply: if hotel prices are too much, look on the Internet for private rooms, pensions, or apartments for rent, which can sometimes be found for a very reasonable price. Best deals are usually offered off-season.
Hostels affiliated with the national hostelling association are often horrid options for backpackers because of imposed curfews. Additionally, Hostelling International (HI) affiliated hostels are frequently used by large school groups, which means young children may very well be screaming their heads off and running around the halls. Some private Hostels are clean and welcoming, but others can be even more dangerous than HI hostels.
Studying in Poland can be an incredible experience for foreigners. Foreign students can finance a B.A. education for as low as 24,000 zł and a M.A. education for as low as 20,000 zł.
There are many international schools and great universities in Poland and of them the Jagiellonian University  in particular is renowned as member of the Coimbra Group and is also a core member of the Europaeum. The University of Warsaw is the top ranked public university in Poland. National Film School in Łódź is the most notable academy.
Private universities are a recent invention, but have been successful enough where several private schools are competing with the major public universities in terms of quality. Private schools may actually be cheaper for foreign students, who are not entitled to a free education at one of Poland's public universities.
At the moment Poland is one of the best places around the world to find a job as an English teacher. TEFL courses (that's Teaching English as a Foreign Language) are run in many cities across Poland. The demand for TEFL teachers is enormous and teaching language is a brilliant way to fund your travel and earn as you go.
The European unified emergency number 112 is being deployed in Poland. By now, it certainly works for all mobile-phone calls and most landline calls. There are also three "old" emergency numbers that are still in use. These are:
- Ambulance: 999 (Pogotowie, dziewięć-dziewięć-dziewięć)
- Firefighters: 998 (Straż pożarna, dziewięć-dziewięć-osiem)
- Police: 997 (Policja, dziewięć-dziewięć-siedem)
- City guards: 986 (Straż Miejska dziewięć-osiem-sześć) it is a kind of auxilary Police force found only in large cities.
Pickpockets operate in larger cities, including in public transportation, rail station areas, and clubs/bars. Immediately check you pockets if someone bumps into you in a large crowd. Even if it may seem harmless at the time, your cell phone might be missing minutes later.
- Keep an eye on your belongings when traveling on a bus or train.
- Don't display any bags, valuables or your car radio if you leave your car parked in the streets. Use guarded parking lots whenever possible.
- Use common sense.
Walking around is usually safe, particularly in city centers. It may be unsafe to walk in the suburbs, depending on the time of day, your dress and behavior (that is, how obvious it is that you are a foreigner) and other factors. Again, use common sense.
Watch out for the Polish equivalent of thugs, called dresiarze -- young people with shaved heads, usually dressed in counterfeit Adidas tracksuits (and sometimes with a leather jacket on top of that). These are the young generation of the Polish underclass, whose sole purpose is to fight, especially foreigners. If you get into some sort of discussion or altercation with these thugs, run away as fast as possible and call the police. Do not expect help from roaming security guards or passersby if you're attacked. Fighting should absolutely be avoided so you are not arrested or seriously injured. Stay clear of all main football matches as riots occur very often.
GLBT issues remain very controversial, still very much taboo (although decreasingly so), and routinely exploited by conservative politicians. Polish culture also has a long tradition of chivalry and strong, traditional gender roles. That said, in larger, cosmopolitan areas, gays and lesbians shouldn't have a hard time fitting in, although trans visitors will immediately attract attention.
Avoid drinking tap water, especially in older areas of major cities and in the countryside, without boiling it or being sure it is not otherwise polluted or chemically contaminated, first.
Some men, particularly older men, may kiss a woman's hand when greeting or saying goodbye. Kissing a woman's hand is considered to be chivalrous, but you will not go wrong shaking hands. For a more heartfelt greeting or goodbye, close friends of either sex will kiss three times, alternating cheeks.
A fairly common practice is for people to greet each other with a dzień dobry (Good day) when entering elevators, or, at the very least, saying do widzenia (Good bye) when exiting the elevator.
It is usual to bring a gift when invited to someone's home. Flowers are always a good choice. Florists' kiosks are ubiquitous; be sure to get an odd number of flowers, as an even number is associated with funerals.
It is customary to hold doors and chairs for women. Poles are generally old-fashioned about gender etiquette.
Men should not wear hats indoors. Most restaurants, museums and other public buildings have a cloakroom, and people are expected to leave bags and outerwear there.
There's much more to Poland than just the German Nazi concentration camps and World War II monuments. However, the war and its consequences remain a raw wound that refuses to heal.
The Holocaust, as many historians note, is the genocide of European Jewry. However, it's also a particularly painful time for Poland. Among the victims of the Nazi Germany, 3 million were Polish Jews. Additionally, over 3 million Polish Catholics were also murdered, mostly by the Nazis. Many other members of minority groups, intelligentsia, and political philosophies were murdered. Between census of 1938 and census of 1946 population of Poland has been reduced by over 30% from 35 million to 23 million.
In spite of the shared history of suffering, occasional ethnic divisions come to popular attention. For example, late last century, Jan Gross, a Polish-American-Jewish historian, authored several books alleging that some Poles willingly participated in pogroms and the destruction of Poland's Jewish community. The book prompted painful discussion and fact-finding, made especially difficult by the fact that many Poles also risked their lives attempting to save their Jewish neighbors from the Nazis during the war, and resented being lumped into that category.
- The Catholic Church might be a touchy subject. Poland fought and was occupied (or strongly influenced) by Protestant Prussia, Lutheran Sweden, Orthodox Russia and communist USSR. Thus, the Catholic faith was and for many still is a strong element of national identity. Pope John Paul II is considered by the vast majority of the population to be a national hero. On the flip side, many Poles object to the role of the Catholic Church in politics and even private life. Radio Maryja, as an example, is despised by much of the younger Poles, because of its supposed influence over the leaders of the PiS political party and the alleged antisemitism that is sometimes expressed by employees and guests of Radio Maryja.
- Homosexuality remains highly controversial in Poland. Attitudes run the gamut from complete acceptance to extreme homophobia.
- Be aware that in Poland the comma is used as decimal point, and the space to group numbers. eg. 10 500,46 zł is ten thousand five hundred zlotych and 46 groszy. Occasionally a dot is also used as grouping character.
- It is illegal to drink alcoholic beverages in public, though it's often done by the locals, especially in parks, on some buses, and some of the more congested city streets.
Most public toilets have turned to pay-per-use schemes; expect to pay 1 - 2 zł to use a public restroom, eg. at a bus station or at a fast-food place.
Toilets for women are marked with a circle on the door, and toilets for men are marked with a triangle.
All restaurants and bars are forced by law to have toilets inside (but not all comply). It's not a common practice to use their toilet without ordering (at least coffee), but if you ask a waiter, he wouldn't mind in most cases. Sometimes you have to get a key to the toilet at the counter. If there seems to be a lack of public toilets you may want to try to visit McDonald's (or another fast food place) just to use the toilet.
In case of larger events, organizers provide so called toi-toi toilets (from one of companies that service them). They are narrow plastic booths, usually blue, not very comfortable, often not very clean, and hardly ever with water or paper.
There is the de facto monopoly operator for landline phones - TP (Polish: Telekomunikacja Polska), a subsidiary of France Telecom, renowned for its leaving-much-to-be-desired services. There is also a number of smaller, often regional operators (Dialog, Netia, NOM, Energis). They are mainly serving the business market.
There are four mobile phone operators in Poland: Plus GSM  (code 260 01), Era  (260 02), Orange  (260 03) and Play . The last one is mainly using Plus GSM  coverage network. About 98% of the country's surface is covered by the standard European GSM 900/1800 MHz network, the remaining 2% are wildlife reserves or high mountains. UMTS is available in some bigger cities. Due to the introduction of virtual brands, some operators now have two names for their pre-paid services: Plus has Sami Swoi and Simplus, Era has Heyah and Tak Tak, while Orange operates Pop and Orange Go. Domestic call rates are roughly the same across all services.
Polish telephone numbers
All telephone numbers in Poland are 10 digits long and start with 0, though many numbers are written the old way, that is often only the last 7 digits are listed, in which case you need to prefix the number with 0 and the area code.
- When calling from a landline telephone, the number starts with zero (except the emergency numbers).
- When calling from a mobile phone, the number never starts with zero. Just omit it.
There are some special numbers, notably:
- 0 800 xxxxxx - toll-free call from a landline phone and from a phone booth, but may still cost something from a mobile phone
- 0 801 xxxxxx - reduced fare, costs as much as a local call from a landline phone at most (but will cost more from a mobile phone)
- 0 70x xxxxxx - premium fare, can be very expensive - read the fine print in that advert you've got the number from :) On the other hand, cheap international calls can often be made through special numbers beginning with 0 708.
Also, texting (= sending SMSes) to:
- 7xxx - Premium SMS, 2nd digit is cost in Zloty plus 22% tax, eg 72xx costs 2.44zł, 70xx is less than one Zloty.
- 7xxxx - can cost quite much (again, read the fine print)
- 8xxx - is toll-free
To call abroad from Poland:
- From a landline phone: 00 Your Country Code The Number Abroad
- From a mobile phone: + Your Country Code The Number Abroad
To call to Poland from abroad, dial the Polish country code,48, then the number without the leading 0, as if calling from a domestic mobile phone.
International and roaming calls are expensive. To reduce your bill you can:
- buy "phone cards" for international calls
- activate a Polish pre-paid account to make or receive calls (the cost can be as little as 20 zł)
- talk over the Internet
If you're bringing a laptop, Wireless LAN Hot-Spots are available in distinct places, sometimes free, otherwise not very cheap. Best chances of finding one are at airports, railway stations, in cafés, shopping malls and universities. You can ask in your hotel, but be prepared to pay. For those who need to connect at an internet cafe, fear not, because Poland's major cities have internet cafes.
With your mobile phone you can use: CSD, HSCSD, GPRS or EDGE, but the cost may be unattractive. UMTS is only available in some bigger cities. If your phone is not SIM-locked, you may consider purchasing a pre-paid SIM card designed for data access. Inquire for one at the mobile operators' points of sales (hint: check PlusGSM's SimDATA ). With Polish pre-paid plans the cost may be down to 0.3 PLN/1MB.
If you want to communicate with Poles, you'll need two programs - Gadu-Gadu , a Polish language instant messenger program, or Skype . Gadu-Gadu will be difficult to use for non-Polish speaking people, but alternatives such as Adium  (Mac OSX), Kadu  (Mac OSX/Linux), and Pidgin  (Linux, Windows), all of which can be used in English, can be helpful.
Euro 2012 category.
This page was last edited at 13:28, on 26 March 2009 by Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel. Based on work by David Willey, Albert Lingelbach, Maciej Ceglowski, Andrew Haggard and Rafal Jankowiak, Wikitravel user(s) Huttite, Fire Elf and Doihaveto-wikitravel, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.