Turku has approximately 175 000 inhabitants, and was the most important city in Finland from the 1300s until 1812, when the Russians moved the capital to Helsinki (closer to Russia and farther from Sweden). Turku remained Finland's main city for a while after, but its ambitions were dealt a death blow in 1827, when a raging fire destroyed most of the city.
Today's Turku remains the third largest city in Finland, after the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area and Tampere. Some of the main draws of Turku are its history and historical significance and the great natural beauty of the neighboring archipelago. Turku is at its best during the summertime, and hosts a great number of festivals, including rock festivals, chamber music festivals and a renaissance faire.
Turku Airport  (IATA: TKU) is located 8.6 km north of the city. There are domestic flights to Helsinki, Enontekiö, Ivalo, Joensuu Jyväskylä, Kajaani, Kemi/Tornio, Kittilä, Kruunupyy, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lappeenranta, Mariehamn, Oulu, Pori, Rovaniemi, Savonlinna, Tampere, Vaasa, Varkaus, Mikkeli and Seinäjoki. International services are more limited, but there are scheduled flights to Stockholm, Copenhagen and Gdansk. Bus line 1 (€2.50) connects the airport to Kauppatori and the port.
VR  offers high-speed train (Pendolino) connections only to Helsinki (2h). There is also a direct line to Tampere (1:40). The train station is located in the northern part of the city. Note that some trains continue onwards to the Port of Turku (Turun satama), which is quite handy if connecting to the ferry.
The Port of Turku  is next to Turku Castle and is easily accessible on bus line 1 from Market Square (Kauppatori). The port also has its own train station, and some trains terminate at the port.
The two biggest ferry lines are Viking Line  and Silja Line . Each one has a morning and an evening departure from Stockholm, Sweden, with a brief stop in Mariehamn in the Åland Islands. For a scenic view, a morning departure is advisable. Evening departures provide adequate night club activities on board if you want to cut loose before arriving in Turku.
Turku is well connected by road. Route E18 leads east to Helsinki (2 hours), with the final stretch of expressway set to open in late 2008. Route E63 leads northeast to Tampere (2:15) and while E8 heads north to Pori (2:15).
Turku has an excellent public transportation system, and its buses can reach nearly every corner of the city.
The vast majority of the city's sights are within two kilometers of the Kauppatori market square that is considered as the heart of the city. The river Aura passes through the center of the city, and its banks are very popular for walking along on, allowing for a pleasant stroll from, say, the city centre to the Turku Castle.
The city tourist office can suggest cycling routes and publishes an excellent free bike route map of the city and surrounding towns. You can rent bike for €12 per day or €55 per week; Find out more bicycle rental www.polkupyoravuokraamo.fi
The free Föri ferry shuttles travellers and their bikes (no cars allowed) across the Aurajoki River every day from 6:15 AM to 9 PM, or until 11 PM in summer. The trip covers a grand distance of 78 meters and takes about a minute and a half. A running local gag is to ask visitors if they've taken the trip from Turku across to Åbo on the Föri yet; actually, both sides of the river are called the same, Åbo is just the Swedish name. Incidentally, the name comes from the Swedish färja and is related to the English word "ferry".
Föri's low-tech cousin Kampiföri can be found upriver near the Kuralan kylämäki village museum. The name means "Winch Föri", and true to the name, it's operated by up to 12 passengers winching themselves across the river on their own muscle power.
Almost every bus terminates at the Kauppatori market square, and bus lines radiate outwards from it. There are no significant 'circle lines', so usually if you need to transfer, you will need to take one bus to the Kauppatori, then transfer there to the bus taking you to your final destination. Buses generally go in two directions from Kauppatori, so check and make sure that you are taking the correct numbered bus in the correct direction as well.
A single ticket is €2.50, and it is valid for unlimited transfers within two hours of the ticket's purchase. If you intend to take the bus more than twice a day, it becomes economical to ask the bus driver for a 24 hour ticket, priced €5.50. There are no 48 hour tickets, but the tourist office sells Turku Cards (of 24h and 48h varieties) which, in addition to providing free admission to most sights, also provides you free bus rides for the validity period. Some of the more important bus lines are the number 1, which goes from Kauppatori to the airport to Kauppatori to the passenger harbor (and Turku Castle) and then all over again, and the numbers 50-54 and 30, which will take you to the spa hotel Caribia.
Taxis are generally easily available, but expensive. There are three crunch times when they might be slightly problematic, and those are the morning and evening ferry departure times (particularly during summer), around 8 AM and 9 PM, and the bar closing times (particularly on weekends) around 4 AM.
A normal taxi will carry about 4 people and a moderate amount of luggage. For significant amounts of luggage, you may want to order a "farmari" taxi, an estate/wagon car which has a roomier luggage compartment. There is also a third common type of taxi available, the tilataksi, a van which will comfortably carry about 8 people.
Taxis charge a base cost of €5.00-7.70 depending on time of day (on Sundays the base cost is higher regardless of the time of day), and €1-2 per mile, depending on amount of passengers (more passengers, higher mileage charge). Quick 1-2 mile trips will cost in the €8-13 vicinity.
Flagging taxis on the street is rare and may not work; calling the central dispatch is the common method, however you can recognize a free taxi in dark, since the taxi sign on the top will have its light on. There is a central dispatch for all Turku taxis at phone number 02-10041, and bookings can be made in advance, though more than one day in advance is unnecessary. Advance bookings less than 30 min before desired departure time are not accepted -- in that case, just phone the dispatch when you are ready to go. Outside the worst rush hours, a taxi should take no more than 5 minutes to arrive. If you are out late at night, plan ahead. During weekend bar closing hours, wait times in excess of 1 hour are not unheard of.
Parking places are sparse at rush hours, but otherwise you should be able to park your car quite near the place you are going. One good option is the underground Louhi  parking hall (€1-2/h) as it gives you direct access via elevators to the center of the city and its entrance is well.
During the summertime, there are multiple boats at the banks of the River Aura who make trips into the archipelago.
- Turku Castle(Turun linna), Linnankatu 80, ☎ +358-2-2620300, . Daily 10 AM-6 PM; reduced hours and closed Mon in Oct-Mar low season. At the south tip of the city, near the ferry terminals. A must for everyone visiting the city and is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions. This old castle dates from the 1280s, and has been carefully renovated. There is always some exhibition in the castle premises. Highlights include the two dungeons and magnificent banquet halls, and a historical museum of medieval Turku in a maze of restored rooms in the castle's old bailey. Tours of the stronghold are given hourly in English. They give a good account of the castle's history.€7, optional guided tour €2.
- Turku Cathedral, . Towers over the river and the town and is one of Finland's most important Cathedrals. Tours run 9am-7pm during mid September to mid April and 9am to 8pm mid April to mid September.Free.
- Luostarinmäki, . In 1827 a fire destroyed almost all of Turku. Luostarinmäki was one of the few areas that were saved, and now it hosts a handicrafts museum.
- Aboa Vetus & Ars Nova, . This museum is actually two museums: Aboa Vetus tells about the history of Turku, and Ars Nova is a museum of modern art. Aboa Vetus is based on ancient remainings of old buildings and the Aboa Vetus exhibition is located there.
- * Kuralan kylämäki, . Dubbed a "Village of Living History", here you can see newborn lambs and chicken (depends on time of year), as well as a genuine Finnish farm from the 1950s. Very close to the city center but yet you feel like you are in the country side.
- Turun taidemuseo . The regional museum of Finland proper. A central part of the art life in Turku since 1904.
- Ruissalo. A beautiful national park on a island located 6 km from the Kauppatori. There is also a championship level golf course, Aura Golf , founded in 1958. The Ruissalo Spa Hotel  is its immediate vicinity.
- Caribia spa  and Posankka. Relax in the spa and see the famous cross between a pig and a duck, Posankka. This pink statue was made by Alvar Gullichsen, and it has become a known landmark in front of the spa.
- Wäinö Aaltosen museo, Itäinen Rantakatu 38(15 min from Market Sq, or take bus 14/15), ☎ +358-2-2620850, . Tue-Sun 11 AM-7 PM. An art museum named after Finnish artist and sculptor Wäinö Aaltonen (1896-1966), whose statues of famous Finns and various nationalist themes can be found throughout Finland. Perhaps the best-known is the classical Greek-style statue of "Flying Finn" and nine-time Olympic gold medalist Paavo Nurmi. Five copies of the statue exist, one in the museum, and the statue's best known exploit was when students from the Helsinki U. of Tech. snuck one onto the wreck of the 17th-century Swedish warship Vasa just days before it was salvaged. The museum also hosts changing exhibitions of other artists.€7.
- Forum Marinum  and Suomen Joutsen . A national special museum that also works as a maritime centre while having the famous Suomen Joutsen (Swan of Finland) just outside of it. A ship that is considered as the national ship of finns. Both are located just after the guest harbour when going down stream, you can't miss it.
- Ruisrock  Visit the oldest rock festival in the world that takes place in the Ruissalo island at start of July.
- Down by the Laituri  A city festival with various bands playing around the city and mainly just a lot of people by the riverboats. Takes place at start of August.
- Uuden musiikin festivaali  A festival of new music. All kind of electronic music. Takes place at start of August.
- Turku Jazz . A jazz festival held every spring.
- The Medieval Market  (Keskiaikaiset markkinat) takes usually place at the last weekend of June. The old market square is filled with medieval action for the whole weekend, from sales to hangings to music and dance plays.
There are plenty of opportunities to part with your cash in Turku. The city centre is full of major retail and independent shops. Shopping in Turku is generally more affordable than in Helsinki, but, as with the rest of Finland, it is by no means cheap by international standards.
- Hansa Shopping Centre, (Adjacent to the main market square), . Over 150 shops under one roof.
- Länsikeskus. District on the outskirts of town full of big-box hypermarkets.
For proper restaurant meals, expect to pay 10-30 euro - lower end with some simple pasta or soup with water or a soft drink, and the higher end with a high-grade steak meal with good wine. For fast food or pizzeria meals, you will generally need to pay under 10 euro. Burger meals are around 5-8 euro (including drink and fries), kebabs and pizzas are about the same.
Generally, proper restaurants are open until 10-11pm, on weekends maybe an hour longer. There are no proper restaurants open in Turku after midnight. Fast food chains, pizzerias and other such places are open later at night, some as late as 3-5am. In some establishments, the bar may remain open for drinks even though the kitchen has closed and no food is available.
Hesburger is the dominant burger chain in Turku, and you will find several of these in the city centre. Pizzerias are frequently kebab-pizzerias, offering both Turkish kebab and Italian pizza dishes on their menu. You will also find a lot of these downtown. Unfortunately, the restaurants offering the finest kebabs are not located in the core downtown.
- Ege Kebab Pizzeria, Kousankatu 1 near Itäkeskus, by the traffic light intersection, in Varissuo. Reviewed as the best kebab restaurant in Turku  and one of the best in the whole country.
- Milan, Eerikinkatu 5, opposite cinema Julia (downtown). Kebab-pizzeria with excellent pizzas and kebabs.
- Turun Center Kebab Pizzeria, Near the Aura river (Aurajoki) in front of Wärtsilä, .
- Sisilia, Aninkaistenkatu 3 20100 Turku. Servers decent kebabs and pizzas. Famous for the price: all kebabs and pizzas 4 euro (for students, but you don't really need an I.D.).
- Bremer. All meals around 10 euros: pizza, wok, burgers, tortillas. Uudenmaankatu 1.
- Kortteliravintola Kerttu  at Läntinen pitkäkatu 35, near the railway station. They have a laundromat, free wireless Internet, newspapers to read and a very comfortable atmosphere.
- Panini Caffè Ristorante, address: Linnankatu 3. Good Italian food at reasonable prices.
- Pizzeria Dennis. Well known and respected Italian restaurant.
Restaurant quality food is readily found in Turku. Most famous are the restaurant boats on the banks of the River Aura. Some of them close for the winter, but others remain open throughout the year. Other famous restaurants include:
- Enkeliravintola ("Angel Restaurant"), downtown on Kauppiaskatu, decorated with many art objects related to angels and focusing on warm, friendly atmosphere.
- Viikinkiravintola ("Viking Restaurant") Harald, downtown on Aurakatu, giving patrons a pseudo-authentic Viking style environment.
- Hermanni, along the riverside towards the harbor from downtown
- Rocca , along the riverside towards the harbor from downtown - co-owned by the famous ice hockey player Saku Koivu.
- Vaakahuone  Aurajoki riverside Castlestreet (Linnankatu) 38.
- Trattoria Romana, Hämeenkatu 9. An Italian trattoria, excellent price-quality relationship. Tip: try their unrivalled pizza margherita.
- Oscar's Place(Oscarin Olohuone), Eerikinkatu 10(in hotel Hamburger Börs). Opened in 1895, this German-style pub-restaurant was at the forefront of Turku gastronomy for a long time. Post-renovation, though, the ambience is airy but nondescript and the menu is now a somewhat odd mix of the gourmet (escargots, duck leg confit) and the not so gourmet (burritos and pizza).€20-40.
Restaurants and bars have varying closing hours, but generally, the popular nightclubs and discos are open until 4am. Last call always occurs half an hour before closing time, and is indicated by the bar staff turning the lights off for a few seconds, then turning them back on. They may repeat this a few times in quick succession to make sure the patrons get it. It's generally smart to leave about ten minutes before the last call, to avoid being caught in the rush of everybody trying to leave at once, especially if you are planning to get back to your night spot by a taxi.
Night clubs tend to have guarded cloakrooms where you can leave any of your outer garments in exchange for a ticket. Using the coat service is generally considered mandatory even if this is not explicitly pointed out. The cloakroom fee is usually 2 - 2,50 euros. Do not lose the ticket; the bar staff will often not want to hash out ticket confusions during closing time when things are at their most chaotic. If you lose the ticket, you may be told to come back the following day to get your things, expect to be able to prove the jacket is your by telling the staff the make of the jacket/colour of lining/contents of pockets.
The legal drinking age in Finland is 18 for mild alcoholic drinks (up to 20%/40-proof) and 20 for stronger drinks than that, but virtually all establishments sell stronger drinks to 18-year-olds as well. The minimum age required to enter bars/pubs/nightclubs differs; legally, one must be at least 18 to enter places that serve alcohol, but many clubs and bars have higher age limits (20 - 24 yrs).
- Kirjakahvila, Vanha Suurtori 1. Located at the historical Old Great Square, this is a culture cafe and a bookshop (hence the name, which means "Book Cafe") run by volunteers. Besides books there are also a lot of comics, postcards and posters by local artists for sale. Freshly baked cakes every day, even for vegans. Free wireless Internet available, ask the staff for passwords. Opened from 11am to 7pm, from Monday to Friday, but there is often live acoustic music or other cultural events in the evening.
- Cafe Mansikkapaikka, Piispankatu 11, a old yellow wooden house. The name means "A place where wild strawberries can be found", and the interior and the atmosphere is very romantic and cosy. The tea is served in small strawberry-themed tea pots and you can choose from an assortment of 30 different teas.
- Cosmic Comic Cafe , Kauppiaskatu 4 (Forum Shopping Centre). A cafe for comics lovers. Offers drinks, comics books for free reading and hosts various events from time to time.
- For the late teens-early twenties crowd, the Night Club Marilyn  is particularly popular as a disco/night club.
- For a similar disco experience for early twenties upwards, there are a number of options such as night club Giggling Marlin . Another popular night spot for mid-to-late twenties is Börs Night Club in the same building as the hotel Hamburger Börs (but open to all, not just hotel guests).
- Nightclub Onnela, at Aurakatu 14, is popular among exchange students. You can find them socializing on wednesdays.
- For proper dancing (not disco dancing), Restaurant Galax  is the recommended place in Turku. The age group skews towards the 40s-50s.
- In the summertime, it is very popular to spend the early evening until midnight or so on the restaurant boats on the banks of the River Aura, and when it gets a little chilly, move indoors to a restaurant or night club.
- Dynamo  at Linnankatu, opposite the main library, caters for hipsters with a passion for slightly more eclectic sound. Downstairs indie pop, electro and rock 'n' roll are the main draws, upstairs it's chiefly soul, funk and disco. Attracts a healthy amount of exchange students.
- Monk  The best and pretty much the only jazz club in town. Musical scale includes happy jazz, retromodern club jazz, funk, afro and latin stuff. Djs on weekends, live jazz 2-3 days a week.
- Klubi  The leading rock venue in Turku. Goth, punk, electronica, ska, prog, grunge, indie/alternative - you name it, they've got it.
Pubs and Bars
- Cosmic Comic Cafe at Forum shopping center by the Market Square. Comics gallery, board games to play and a chilly atmosphere. Sometimes very overcrowded.
- Alvar at Humalistonkatu 7, near the railway station. It is located at a building designed by a famous finnish architecht Alvar Aalto. A comfortable place with nice staff and a large selection of beer. Free Wi-Fi available.
- Puutorin Vessa, a former public toilet but nowadays a popular bar, located at Puutori market square, near the bus station. One of the must see sights in Turku.
- The Old Bank, a former bank turned into a beer pub with beautiful interior and the widest selection of beers in town.
- Brewery restaurant Koulu, an old school building converted to a brewery restaurant serving their own beers, good food and an excellent selection of wines. A cozy biergarten in the back yard is open in the summer.
- Mallaskukko is another good beer pub in Turku, with a wide selection of beers and scotch whiskies.
- Pikku-Torre  close to the centre is a good and friendly bar-cum-restaurant, serving a good choice of different beers and a selection of mid-priced meals (only until 9 pm.). Pikku-Torre is one of the best spots in Turku for watching football. Live music on weekends.
- Uusi apteekki, a beer pub located in a former pharamacy built in 1907.
- The Castle, Eerikinkatu 6, close to the main square. An Irish style pub with English staff and a reputation of being the hangout of the British/Irish community of Turku.
- Whisky Bar at Yliopistonkatu 19, in the core downtown of Turku. Has a wide selection of whiskies. Nowadays strongly orientated to heavy metal by it's music and atmosphere.
- Hostel Turku, . Located on the river close to the town center, 10-min walk from the train station, or take bus 1 from the bus station/harbor. Spacious and friendly, contains a decent kitchen, laundry, lockers, and bike hire. Book ahead, as it gets very busy in summer.
- Interpoint Hostel, Vähä Hämeenkatu 12a (near Cathedral, Kupittaa railway station). Open in summer only, usually July 15-Aug 15 (may vary). Maintained by Turku YWCA volunteers and often praised for its friendly atmosphere. Accommodation is very cheap at 8,50 €/night, but only includes a mattress on the floor. Kitchen and laundry facilities available.
- Turku Unihostel,  Inspehtorinkatu 4. Located in the Turku University student village, and intended for longer-term stays. Buses 30, 50, 51, 53, 54, 20 minute walk to centre. Single rooms with WC/shower and common kitchen, laundry, tv, wireless internet. Book by the week only, payment by wire transfer in advance, limited office hours to obtain keys. Inhabited mostly by university short-term visitors, but open to anyone.
- Omena. Booking only by Internet, and you get a passcode online which you can use to get into the building. There is no reception staff and no breakfast.
- Holiday Inn Cumulus & Ramada. From the marketplace about 5 blocks towards the harbor.
- Sokos Hotel Seurahuone. From the marketplace about 3 blocks towards the harbor. On the same street as Cumulus/Ramada (Eerikinkatu).
- Sokos Hotel Hamburger Börs & City Börs, Kauppiaskatu 6, ☎ +358-2-337381, . Formerly the Grand Hotel Börs, this hotel dates back to 1904 (the restaurant is a few years older yet) and remains a solid choice. The complex now has twin hotels diagonally across from each other, with the City Börs rooms being cheaper and simpler, but the combined reception is in Hamburger Börs. The entire complex has no less than 9 restaurants, bars and clubs, making this a popular nightspot. Indoor pool and sauna. Good discounts often available if you book a package with the ferry companies.
- Park Hotel. A non-chain hotel only a couple hundred meters from the railway station.
- Scandic Hotel Julia. Two blocks from the marketplace, towards the cathedral.
- Centro Hotel. One block upslope from Julia's location, a little hard to find on the inner courtyard of the city block.
- Artukaisten Paviljonki. Near the Elysee Arena and fair centre, several miles from downtown.
- Caribia Spa Hotel 
- Scandic Hotel Plaza. One block from the marketplace.
- Sokos Hotel Hamburger Börs. Right beside the marketplace.
- Radisson SAS Hotel Marina Palace. Situated on Linnankatu overlooking the River Aura.
Cruises on the Baltic Sea:
Take the bus to Naantali to see the presidential summer residence Kultaranta and the Moomin world.
This page was last edited at 12:20, on 19 March 2009 by Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel. Based on work by Stephen Davies, Jani Patokallio and J-P Keskinen, Wikitravel user(s) Erissane, Que2 and Flygmaskin, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.